Footnotes

* J.D. Candidate, 2014. Nicole Giffin is a second-year student at the University of Mississippi School of Law.

[1]. Lake Mead is a reservoir located in the southwestern United States. It spans part of southeastern Nevada and into northwestern Arizona, and it was created when the Hoover Dam was built across the Colorado River in the early 1900s. History and Culture, Lake Mead Nat’l Recreation Area, Nat’l Park Serv., http://www.nps.gov/lake/historyculture/index.htm (last updated Dec. 17, 2012). See also Lake Mead, Bureau of Reclamation, http://www.usbr.gov/ lc/hooverdam/faqs/lakefaqs.html (last updated June 2012); Plan Your Visit, Park Map-Overview, Lake Mead Nat’l Recreation Area, Nat’l Park Serv., http://www.nps.gov/lake/ planyourvisit/upload/ map_LAME_colorbrochure_overview.pdf (last visited Jan. 13, 2013) (map).

[2]. W. Reg’l Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species, Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters E-1 (2010), available at http://www.anstaskforce.gov/ QZAP/QZAP_FINAL_Feb2010.pdf.

[3]. Id.

[4]. David K. Britton, Western Quagga Mussels: Background Information, 100th Meridian Initiative 5 (Mar. 25, 2007), http://www.100thmeridian.org/Documents/ Talking Points Regarding Western Quagga Mussels.pdf.

[5]. Species at a Glance: Zebra and Quagga Mussels, Or. Sea Grant 5 (2008), http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/invasive-species/toolkit/zebra-quagga-_mussels.p df.

[6]. Id. at 5-6.

[7]. See Robert F. McMahon et al., U.S. Army Corps of Eng’rs, Contract Rep. No. EL-93-1, Use of Emersion as a Zebra Mussel Control Method 18-22 (1993), available at http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/pdf/crel93-1.pdf.

[8]. Id. The mussels reproduce at an incredibly rapid rate; females can produce up to one million eggs per year. Robert F. McMahon, Quagga/Zebra Mussel Life History, Presentation at Legal and Regulatory Efforts to Minimize Expansion of Invasive Mussels Through Watercraft Movements, Slide 35 (Aug. 22, 2012), available at http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/invasive-species/mussel-workshop-2012/ag_ais_workshop_quagga_zebra_life_history_mcmahon_082212.pdf.

[9]. See, e.g., Clean, Drain and Dry, Colo. Parks & wildlife, http://wildlife.state.co.us/ WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/InvasiveSpecies/Pages/WatercraftCleaning.aspx (last updated Nov. 6, 2012).

[10]. Don’t Move a Mussel! Clean, Drain and Dry, Bureau of Reclamation, http://www.usbr.gov/gp/multimedia/publications/zebra_mussel_brochure.pdf (last visited Jan. 13, 2013).

[11]. Id.

[12]. Id.

[13]. Id.

[14]. See, e.g., Don’t Move a Mussel!, Nev. Fish & Wildlife Office, http://www.fws.gov/nevada/nv_species/invasive_species/mussels.htm (last visited Jan. 13, 2013); Invasive Mussels, Utah Div. of Wildlife Res., http://wildlife.utah.gov/dwr/threats.html (last visited Jan. 13, 2013); Invasive Species Program: Quagga and Zebra Mussels, Cal. Dep’t of Fish & Game, http://www.dfg.ca.gov/invasives/quaggamussel/ (last visited Jan. 13, 2013); Quagga Mussels, Ariz. Game & Fish Dep’t, http://www.azgfd.gov/h_f/zebra_mussels.shtml (last visited Jan. 13, 2013); Zebra and Quagga Mussels, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric., http://www.agri.state.id.us/ Categories/Environment/InvasiveSpeciesCouncil/Quagga_Zebra_Mussels.php (last visited Jan. 13, 2013).

[15]. See Press Release, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric., All Idaho Invasive Species Inspection Stations Now Open (June 29, 2011), http://www.agri.idaho.gov/Categories/NewsEvents/ Documents/PressReleases/2011/InvasiveSpeciesStationsOpen110629.pdf. See also Press Release, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric., Early Season Watercraft Inspection Station Intercepts Two Mussel-Fouled Boats (Feb. 24, 2012), http://www.agri.state.id.us/Categories/NewsEvents/Documents/ PressReleases/2012/MusselFouledWatercraftIntercepted120224.pdf.

[16]. Bill Zook & Stephen Phillips, Uniform Minimum Protocols and Standards for Watercraft Interception Programs for Dreissenid Mussels in the Western United States (UMPS II) 11 (2012). High-risk watercraft/equipment includes “any vessel or piece of equipment that operates on or in the water than has been used in any water body known or suspected of having zebra or quagga mussels in the past 30 days or any watercraft or equipment that is not clean, and to the extent practical, drained and dried.” Id.

[17]. Memorandum from Jim Ruff, Raquel Crosier & Amy Ferriter to Members of the Fish & Wildlife Comm. of the Nw. Power & Conservation Council (June 28, 2012), available at http://www.nwcouncil.org/news/2012/07/f7.pdf.

[18]. 2011 Program Summary – Idaho Invasive Species Program, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric. 8, http://www.agri.idaho.gov/Categories/Environment/InvasiveSpeciesCouncil/documents/Idaho%20Invasive%20Species%20Report%202011%20Ferriter.pdf (last visited Jan. 15, 2013) [hereinafter 2011 Program Summary]; Telephone Interview with Amy Ferriter, Invasive Species Program Manager, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric. (Nov. 6, 2012).

[19]. Road-Side Inspection Stations, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric., http://www.agri.idaho.gov/Categories/Environment/InvasiveSpeciesCouncil/Inspection_Stations_ALL.php(last visited Jan. 13, 2013).

[20]. 2011 Program Summary, supra note 18, at 8.

[21]. Id.

[22]. Id.

[23]. Id.

[24]. Id.

[25]. Id.

[26]. Telephone Interview with Amy Ferriter, supra note 18.

[27]. Id.

[28]. Cal. Fish & Game Code § 2301 (West 2012). This section authorizes the California Department of Fish and Game to stop, inspect, and quarantine boats. It further allows other state agencies to implement this section; the California Department of Food and Agriculture and California Department of Parks and Recreation have both been granted the power to stop, inspect, and quarantine boats under this section. Telephone Interview with Jennifer LaBay, Staff Envtl. Scientist, Cal. Dep’t Fish & Game (Dec. 20, 2012).

[29]. Telephone Interview with Jennifer LaBay, supra note 28.

[30]. Id.

[31]. Id.

[32]. Id.

[33]. Id.

[34]. Cal. Fish & Game Code § 2302 (West 2012). “‘Reservoir’ means any reservoir which contains or will contain the water impounded by a dam.” Cal. Water Code § 6004.5 (West 2012).

[35]. See Santa Clara Cnty. Parks & Recreation Dep’t, Bay Area Consortium Zebra and Quagga Mussel Coordinated Prevention Plan (2009), available at http://sccgov.iqm2.com/Citizens/FileOpen.aspx?Type=4&ID=16898 [hereinafter Coordinated Prevention Plan].

[36]. Quagga Inspection Services – Invasive Quagga Control, Quagga Inspection Servs., http://quaggainspections.com/ (last visited Jan. 13, 2013).

[37]. Coordinated Prevention Plan, supra note 35, at 13.

[38]. Id.

[39]. Id. at 13-16.

[40]. Id. at 16.

[41]. Lake Mead Interagency Core Team, Lake Mead National Recreation Area – Draft Quagga Mussel Initial Response Plan – Executive Summary ii (2007), available at http://www.usbr.gov/mussels/activities/basin/lc/docs/NPSDraftResponsePlan.pdf.

[42]. Id.

[43]. Id.

[44]. Id.

[45]. Letter from William K. Dickinson, Superintendent, Nat’l Park Serv., to James Ruff, Manager, Nw. Power & Conservation Council (May 18, 2011) (on file with author); Telephone Interview with Bryan Moore, Project Biologist, Nat’l Park Serv. (Oct. 21, 2012).

[46]. Quagga Mussels – Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nat’l Park Serv., http://www.nps.gov/lake/naturescience/zebramussel.htm(last updated Feb. 15, 2013).

[47]. Cottonwood Cove Marina, Slip/Buoy Renter Quagga Mussels Acknowledgement (on file with author). See also Lake Mead Nat’l Recreation Area, Nat’l Park Serv., Quagga Mussels Frequently Asked Questions 2 (2008), available at http://www.nps.gov/lame/naturescience/upload/Frequently%20Asked%20Questions%20Public%20Version%20May%2021%2008.doc.

[48]. Cottonwood Cove Marina, supra note 47.

[49]. See Letter from William K. Dickinson to James Ruff, supra note 45; Telephone Interview with Bryan Moore, supra note 45.

[50]. Letter from William K. Dickinson to James Ruff, supra note 45.

[51]. Id.

[52]. Id.

[53]. Telephone Interview with Bryan Moore, supra note 45. Because there are over 4000 slips at Lake Mead, it is difficult, if not impossible, to track every single boat. Also, because invasive species laws are state laws, if an NPS agent is informed and pulls over a boater who does not follow the agreement and is breaking the law by transporting live mussels, the agent cannot issue a ticket. If a ticket were issued, concessionaires would need to inform Nevada or Arizona state officers who would have to track down the boater. Therefore, it makes it very hard to enforce the agreements.

[54]. E-mail from Ashlie Watters, Quagga Mussel Program Coordinator, Nat’l Park Serv., to author (Jan. 16, 2013, 4:17 PM) (on file with author).

[55]. Telephone Interview with Amy Ferriter, supra note 18.

[56]. Privacy Act of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93-579, 88 Stat. 1896 (1974) (codified as amended at 5 U.S.C. § 552a (2012)).

[57]. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(i)(1).

[58]. Id. § 552a(b).

The term ‘individual’ means a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence; the term ‘maintain’ includes maintain, collect, use, or disseminate; the term ‘record’ means any item, collection, or grouping of information about an individual that is maintained by an agency, including, but not limited to, his education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or employment history and that contains his name, or the identifying number, symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual, such as a finger or voice print or a photograph; the term ‘system of records’ means a group of any records under the control of any agency from which information is retrieved by the name of the individual or by some identifying number, symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual.

Id. § 552a(a)(2) to (4).

[59]. See Las Vegas Boat Harbor, Space Rental Agreement (on file with author).

[60]. Williams v. Dep’t of Veterans Affairs, 104 F.3d 670, 674 (4th Cir. 1997).

[61]. 5 U.S.C. § 552a(b)(7).

[62]. See Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 17-255 to 17-255.04 (2012); Idaho Code Ann. §§ 22‑1901 to 22-1917 (2012).

[63]. See Letter from William K. Dickinson to James Ruff, supra note 45.

[64]. Id.

[65]. S. Rep. No. 1183, at 1 (1974), reprinted in 1974 U.S.C.C.A.N. 6916, 6916.

[66]. U.S. Const. amend. IV.

[67]. See Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967); United States v. Jones, 132 S. Ct. 945 (2012).

[68]. Katz, 389 U.S. at 351.

[69]. Id. at 360. When a person knowingly exposes something to the public, even in a private place, that thing is not protected by the Fourth Amendment; however, if a person, even in a public place, wants to keep information private, it may be protected by the Fourth Amendment if he or she has an expectation of privacy that is reasonable. Id. at 351.

[70]. Jones, 132 S. Ct. at 949.

[71]. United States v. Knotts, 460 U.S. 276, 281 (1983).

[72]. Id.

[73]. Jones, 132 S. Ct. at 949.

[74]. Id. at 948.

[75]. Id. at 949.

[76]. Id. at 954 (Sotomayor, J., concurring).

[77]. Knotts, 460 U.S. at 282. See also New York v. Class, 475 U.S. 106, 114 (1986) (“[I]t is unreasonable to have an expectation of privacy in an object required by law to be located in a place ordinarily in plain view from the exterior of the automobile.”).

[78]. See, e.g., General Information FAQ, E-ZPass N.Y. Serv. Ctr., https://www.e-z passny.com/en/faq/general.shtml(last visited Jan. 13, 2013).

[79]. Id.

[80]. State v. McGuire, 16 A.3d 411, 426-27 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2011); State v. Calleia, No. A-6218-07T4, 2011 WL 9197, at *7 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 2010).

[81]. See 77 Div. Ave., LLC v. Toro, 899 N.Y.S.2d 63 (N.Y. Civ. Ct. 2009) (E-ZPass records offered to prove the appellee’s primary residence as reason for non-renewal of a lease); Vecchio v. Kelly, 943 N.Y.S.2d 444, 545 (N.Y. App. Div. 2012) (E-ZPass records offered to prove that appellant left work early).

[82]. W. Reg’l Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species, supra note 2, at 8.

[83]. Zook & Phillips, supra note 16, at 7.

[84]. Id.

[85]. Telephone Interview with Jennifer LaBay, supra note 28.

[86]. Telephone Interview with Stephen Phillips, Senior Program Manager, Pac. States Marine Fisheries Comm’n (Oct. 12, 2012).

[87]. Id.

[88]. Telephone Interview with Bryan Moore, supra note 45.

[89]. Id. Recently, a boat that had a band on it, showing it was decontaminated, went into three bodies of water with mussels on it. Since that time, certain states have declined to accept any bands on boats from other than their own state.

[90]. Telephone Interview with Amy Ferriter, supra note 18.

[91]. Id.

[92]. Telephone Interview with Lisa DeBruyckere, Coordinator, Or. Invasive Species Council (Jan. 28, 2013).

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