Footnotes

† Research for this Article was made possible by funding for the National Sea Grant Law Center under award number NA09OAR4170200 from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Commerce or NOAA.

* J.D., M.S.E.L., Stephanie Showalter Otts is Director of the National Sea Grant Law Center at the University of Mississippi School of Law.

** J.D., Terra Bowling is Senior Research Counsel with the National Sea Grant Law Center.

[1]. In this Article, “Western states” refers to the states within the geographic scope of the Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species. This area includes all mainland states west of the Mississippi River; Alaska; and Hawaii.

[2]. Exec. Order No. 13,112, 64 Fed. Reg. 6183, 6183 (Feb. 3, 1999).

[3]. David Pimentel et al., Update on the Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Alien‑Invasive Species in the United States, 52 Ecological Econ. 273, 273 (2005).

[4]. Id. at 282.

[5]. Id. at 279.

[6]. Robert F. McMahon, Quagga/Zebra Mussel Life History, Presentation at Legal and Regulatory Efforts to Minimize Expansion of Invasive Mussels Through Watercraft Movements, Slide 4 (Aug. 22, 2012), available at http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/invasive-species/mussel-workshop-2012/ag_ais_workshop_quagga_zebra_life_history_mcmahon_082212.pdf [hereinafter McMahon Presentation].

[7]. See generally Mikhail O. Son, Native Range of the Zebra Mussel and Quagga Mussel and New Data on Their Invasions Within the Ponto-Caspian Region, 2 Aquatic Invasions 174 (2007), available at www.aquaticinvasions.net/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Son.pdf.

[8]. See Frequently Asked Questions About the Zebra Mussel, U.S. Geological Survey, http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/Zebra_mussel_FAQs/zebra_mussel_faqs.html#firstfound (last modified Dec. 14, 2012) [hereinafter Zebra Mussel FAQs].

[9]. Quagga Mussel (Dreissena bugensis), U.S. Geological Survey, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/ queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=95 (last modified Nov. 16, 2012) [hereinafter Quagga Mussel Fact Sheet].

[10]. The Zebra Mussel Invasion, Nat’l Oceanic & Atmospheric Admin., http://www.noaa.gov/features/earthobs_0508/zebra.html(last visited Jan. 12, 2013).

[11]. See, e.g., 1997 Zebra/Quagga Mussel Location Map, U.S. Geological Survey, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/mollusks/zebramussel/maps/1997.gif(last visited Jan. 12, 2013).

[12]. Quagga Mussel Fact Sheet, supra note 9.

[13]. See Zebra and Quagga Mussel Distribution in U.S. Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey, http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/Zebra_mussel_distribution/zebra_mussel_distribution.html(last updated Nov. 5, 2012).

[14]. McMahon Presentation, supra note 6, at 26.

[15]. Id. at 29.

[16]. Zebra Mussel FAQs, supra note 8.

[17]. S. N. Higgins & M. J. Vander Zanden, What a Difference a Species Makes: A Meta-analysis of Dreissenid Mussel Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems, 80 Ecological Monographs 179, 183 (2010).

[18]. Scientists Study Link Between Zebra Mussels and Algae Blooms, Sci. Daily (Sept. 22, 1998), http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/09/980919115852.htm.

[19]. Great Lakes Envtl. Research Lab., Nat’l Oceanic & Atmospheric Admin., 20 Years of Zebra and Quagga Mussel Research at NOAA’s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 2 (2008) [hereinafter 20 Years].

[20]. Id.

[21]. Harvey Bootsma & John Janssen, Cladophora, Great Lakes Water Inst., http://www.glwi.uwm.edu/research/aquaticecology/cladophora/ (last visited Jan. 15, 2013).

[22]. W. Reg’l Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species, Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters 4 (2010) [hereinafter Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan].

[23]. Richard Alleyne, Invasion of the Zebra Mussels Costs Country Million of Pounds, The Telegraph, Aug. 5, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/8681571/Invasion-of-the-zebra-mussels-costs-country-million-of-pounds.html.

[24]. Steven A. Pothoven et al., Changes in Diet and Body Condition of Lake Whitefish in Southern Lake Michigan Associated with Changes in Benthos, 21 N. Am. J. Fisheries Mgmt. 876, 880 (2001).

[25]. 20 Years, supra note 19, at 1.

[26]. Commercial Fish Production – Pounds and Value, 2010, Great Lakes Region, U.S. Waters, U.S. Geological Survey (Mar. 23, 2012, 9:08 AM), http://www.glsc.usgs.gov/_files/cfreports/ noaa10.txt.

[27]. 20 Years, supra note 19, at 2.

[28]. Donna J. Lee et al., The Economic Impact of Zebra Mussels in Florida 1 (2007), available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe693.

[29]. See generally Karin E. Limburg et al., The Good, the Bad, and the Algae: Perceiving Ecosystem Services and Disservices Generated by Zebra and Quagga Mussels, 36 J. Great Lakes Res. 86 (2010), available at www.utoledo.edu/nsm/lec/pdfs/Limburg_et_al.pdf.

[30]. National Invasive Species Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-332, 110 Stat. 4073 (Oct. 26, 1996) (codified in scattered sections of 16, 18, and 33 U.S.C.).

[31]. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv., The 100th Meridian Initiative: A Strategic Approach to Prevent the Westward Spread of Zebra Mussels and Other Aquatic Nuisance Species 1 (2001) [hereinafter 100th Meridian Initiative].

[32]. E-mail from Larry Dalton, Aquatic Invasive Species Coordinator, Utah Div. of Wildlife Res., to author (Nov. 5, 2012, 12:51 PM) (on file with author).

[33]. Erik Stokstad, Feared Quagga Mussel Turns Up in Western United States, 315 Sci. 453 (2007).

[34]. Press Release, Univ. of Nev., Las Vegas, Quagga Mussels Reach Record Numbers in Lake Mead, UNLV Research Finds (May 18, 2012), http://news.unlv.edu/release/quagga-mussels-reach-record-numbers-lake-mead-unlv-research-finds.

[35]. Lake Mead Nat’l Recreation Area, Nat’l Park Serv., Quagga Mussels Frequently Asked Questions 2 (2008), available at http://www.nps.gov/lame/ naturescience/upload/Frequently Asked Questions Public Version May 21 08.doc.

[36]. Quagga Mussel Fact Sheet, supra note 9.

[37]. Zebra Mussel (Dreissena bugensis), U.S. Geological Survey, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/ queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=5 (last modified June 6, 2012) [hereinafter Zebra Mussel Fact Sheet].

[38]. Press Release, Tex. Parks & Wildlife, Lone Zebra Mussel Found in Lake Texoma, (Apr. 21, 2009), http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/newsmedia/releases/?req=20090421a&nrtype=all&nrspan= &nrsearch=zebra+mussels.

[39]. Press Release, Tex. Parks & Wildlife, Zebra Mussel Found in Lake Ray Roberts (July 18, 2012), http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/newsmedia/releases/?req=20120718a.

[40]. 100th Meridian Initiative, supra note 31, at 5-6.

[41]. See McMahon Presentation, supra note 6, at 31.

[42]. 100th Meridian Initiative Columbia River Basin Team, Columbia River Basin Interagency Invasive Species Response Plan: Zebra Mussels and Other Dreissenid Species 4 (2011).

[43]. Idaho Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, Estimated Potential Economic Impact of Zebra and Quagga Mussel Introduction into Idaho 2 (2009), available at http://www.aquaticnuisance.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/Estimated-Economic-Impact-of-Mussel-Introduction-to-Idaho-Final.pdf.

[44]. As mentioned earlier, quagga mussels have quickly spread from Lake Mead into the Colorado River and connected reservoirs in Nevada, Arizona, and California. Water projects within the Trinity River Basin could hasten the spread of zebra mussels in Texas.

[45]. Marion E. Wittmann, A Risk Assessment of Recreational Boating Traffic and Aquatic Nuisance Species (Dreissenid Mussel) Invasion to Lakes, Rivers and Reservoirs of the Western United States 12-13 (2012).

[46]. Id.

[47]. Id. at 19-35.

[48]. Pac. States Marine Fisheries Comm’n, Watercraft Inspection/Interception Program Data by State (2012) (on file with authors).

[49]. Id.

[50]. Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan, supra note 22, at 8.

[51]. Nat’l Research Council, Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water 73 (2011).

[52]. Mike Fowlks, Case Study: Fiesta Queen: Interdiction, Decontamination, Costs & Enforcement, Or. Sea Grant 2 (Aug. 22, 2012), http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/node/678/[hereinafter Fowlks Presentation] (click “forward” arrow in Slideshare presentation window to advance to slide 2).

[53]. Id. at 4. There are 3000 to 5000 commercial watercraft and equipment transport providers operating in North America, with an estimated 500 active in the West. William Zook & Stephen Phillips, Preventing the Transfer of Dreissenid Mussels and Other Aquatic Invasive Species by Commercial Watercraft and Equipment Transport Providers 5 (2010), available at http://www.aquaticnuisance.org/wit/reports.

[54]. Fowlks Presentation, supra note 52, at 9.

[55]. Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan, supra note 22, at 20.

[56]. Resources, Protect Your Waters, http://www.protectyourwaters.net/resources/ (last visited Jan. 11, 2013).

[57]. 100th Meridian Initiative, Zap the Zebra (2011), available at http://www.100thmeridian.org/ZaptheZebra2011.pdf.

[58]. Pac. States Marine Fisheries Comm’n, Don’t Move a Mussel HD (2011), YouTube (Jan. 30, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uLKK09TljI (posted by Videoland Productions).

[59]. Utah Div. of Wildlife Res., Utah Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan (2009), available at http://wildlife.utah.gov/pdf/AIS_plans_2010/AIS_mgt_plan_full.pdf.

[60]. See generally Zebra Mussels, Texas Invasives, http://texasinvasives.org/action/report_ detail.php?alert_id=2 (last visited Jan. 15, 2013).

[61]. Mont. Code Ann. § 80-7-1002(1)(f) (2012).

[62]. Id. § 80-7-1006.

[63]. Id.

[64]. Cal. Fish & Game Code § 2302 (West 2012).

[65]. Id.

[66]. Don’t Move a Mussel, http://dontmoveamussel.com (last visited Oct. 26, 2012).

[67]. Wash. Rev. Code § 77.12.882(2) (2012).

[68]. Id. § 77.12.882(4).

[69]. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 488.530(6) (2012).

[70]. Idaho Admin. Code r. 02.06.09.010(07) (2011).

[71]. Notice of Intent to Adopt Rules: Chapter 62 – Aquatic Invasive Species 9 (Wyo. Game & Fish Dep’t, proposed Aug. 29, 2012), available at http://legisweb.state.wy.us/ARules/2012/ Rules/ARR12-088P.pdf.

[72]. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17-255.01(B)(2) (2011).

[73]. Notice of Public Information – Director’s Order 2 – R07/12 – Aquatic Invasive Species – Designation of Waters or Locations Where Listed Aquatic Invasive Species Are Present, 18 Ariz. Admin. Reg. 1757 (Fish & Game Dep’t July 20, 2012), available at http://www.azsos.gov/ aar/2012/29/pubinfo.pdf [hereinafter Arizona AIS Locations].

[74]. Utah Code Ann. § 23-27-102(10) (West 2011).

[75]. Utah Admin. Code r. 657-60-7(1)(a) (2012).

[76]. E-mail from Larry Dalton, supra note 32. See also Waters Affected by Invasive Mussels, Utah Div. of Wildlife Res., http://wildlife.utah.gov/dwr/affected-waters.html(last visited Jan. 12, 2013).

[77]. Utah Admin. Code r. 657-60-7(1)(b) (2012).

[78]. Id. 657-60-2(2)(h).

[79]. 2 Colo. Code Regs. § 405-1:806(D) (2012).

[80]. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 17-4-35(A) (2011).

[81]. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 23-4-203(c) (2012).

[82]. Cal. Fish & Game Code § 2301(a)(2)(D)(i) (West 2012).

[83]. Id. § 2301(a)(2)(D)(ii).

[84]. Id. § 2301(a)(2)(D)(iv).

[85]. Utah Code Ann. § 23-27-303(1) (West 2012).

[86]. Id. § 23-27-303(2).

[87]. Id. § 23-27-303(4).

[88]. Id. § 23-27-303(6)(a).

[89]. Utah Admin. Code r. 657-60-8(1)(c) (2012).

[90]. Id. r. 657-60-8(2)(a).

[91]. Id. r. 657-60-9(3).

[92]. Id. r. 657-60-9(2).

[93]. Press Release, Nat’l Park Serv., Threat of Invasive Species to Temporarily Close Crater Lake to Scuba (Aug. 28, 2012), http://www.nps.gov/crla/parknews/temporary-closure-to-scuba.htm.

[94]. Id.

[95]. Idaho Code Ann. § 22-1905 (2012).

[96]. Id. § 22-1904(3).

[97]. Ariz. Admin. Code § 12-4-1102(A) (2012); Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 23-4-202(a)(i)-(iv) (2012).

[98]. Utah Code Ann. § 23-27-201(1) (West 2012); Cal. Code Regs. tit. 14, § 671(c)(10) (2013).

[99]. Nev. Admin. Code § 503.110(g)(2) (2012).

[100]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-646, 104 Stat. 4761 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 16, 18, and 33 U.S.C) (adding zebra mussel to list of species prohibited from importation at 18 U.S.C. § 42(a)(1) (2012)).

[101]. 50 C.F.R. § 16.3 (2013).

[102]. 16 U.S.C. § 3372 (2012).

[103]. Nat’l Invasive Species Council, General Guidelines for the Establishment & Evaluation of Invasive Species Early Detection & Rapid Response Systems 4 (2003).

[104]. Cal. Fish & Game Code § 2301(e) (West 2012).

[105]. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 33-10.5-106 (2012).

[106]. 2 Colo. Code Regs. § 405-1.807(D) (2012).

[107]. Id. § 405-1.807(C).

[108]. Idaho Admin. Code r. 02.06.09.201(01) (2012).

[109]. Id. r. 02.06.09.201(02).

[110]. Id. r. 02.06.09.201(04).

[111]. Wyo. Game & Fish Code ch. 62, § 8(b) (2012).

[112]. Id.

[113]. 100th Meridian Initiative Columbia River Basin Team, supra note 42.

[114]. Id. at 12.

[115]. See, e.g., Nat’l Park Serv., Quagga/Zebra Mussel Infestation Prevention and Response Planning Guide (2007), available at http://www.nature.nps.gov/water/quagga/ QuaggaPlanningGuide_ext.pdf.

[116]. Bill Zook & Stephen Phillips, Uniform Minimum Protocols and Standards for Watercraft Interception Programs for Dreissenid Mussels in the Western United States (UMPS II) 11 (2012) [hereinafter UMPS II].

[117]. Mont. Admin. R. 12.11.341(1)-(2) (2012).

[118]. Id. 12.11.341(4).

[119]. Colo. Parks & Wildlife, 2012 Statewide Watercraft Inspection & Decontamination Stations (2012), available at http://wildlife.state.co.us/SiteCollection Documents/DOW/Fishing/2012WatercraftInspectStationList.pdf.

[120]. 2 Colo. Code Regs. § 405-1:803(B) (2012).

[121]. Id. § 405-1:803(C).

[122]. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 23-4-203(h) (2012).

[123]. E-mail from Beth Bear, Aquatic Invasive Species Coordinator, Wyo. Game & Fish Dep’t, to author (Nov. 5, 2012, 4:32 PM) (on file with author).

[124]. Idaho Code Ann. § 22-1908 (2012).

[125]. Id.

[126]. 2012 Road-side Inspection Stations, Idaho State Dep’t of Agric., http://www.agri.state. id.us/Categories/Environment/InvasiveSpeciesCouncil/Inspection_Stations_2012/Inspection_Stations_2012.php (last visited Jan. 22, 2013).

[127]. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 33-10.5-104(1)(b)(IV) (2012).

[128]. Idaho Code Ann. § 22-1910A(2) (2012).

[129]. Wash. Rev. Code § 77.15.080(2) (2012).

[130]. See, e.g., Aquatic Invasive Species, Or. State Marine Bd. Envtl. Programs, http://www.oregon.gov/OSMB/Clean/Pages/ANS.aspx(last visited Jan. 12, 2013).

[131]. Arizona AIS Locations, supra note 73.

[132]. Id.

[133]. Id.

[134]. 16 U.S.C. § 3372(d) (2012).

[135]. Colo. Div. of Wildlife, Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Watercraft Decontamination Manual 2 (2011).

[136]. Id.

[137]. Or. Admin. R. 250-010-0660(5)(a) (2012).

[138]. Id. 250-010-0660(5)(b).

[139]. See, e.g., Utah Admin. Code r. 657-60-2(2)(b)(ii) (2012).

[140]. Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Interception Training (WIT) for Zebra/Quagga Mussels, Aquatic Nuisance Species Project, http://www.aquaticnuisance.org/wit(last visited Jan. 12, 2013).

[141]. UMPS II, supra note 116.

[142]. Utah Code Ann. § 23-27-302 (West 2012).

[143]. Idaho Code Ann. § 22-1910A(3) (2012).

[144]. Idaho Admin Code r. 02.06.09.203(03) (2010).

[145]. E-mail from Amy Ferriter, Invasive Species Program Manager, Idaho Dep’t of Agric., to author (Nov. 5, 2012, 11:37 AM) (on file with author).

[146]. Id. See also Wyo. Game & Fish Code ch. 62, § 7(a) (2012); Idaho Admin. Code r. 02.06.09.203(01) (2012).

[147]. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 23-4-203(f) (2012).

[148]. Drying Time Estimator for Zebra/Quagga-Mussel Contaminated Boats, 100th Meridian Initiative, http://www.100thmeridian.org/emersion.asp(last visited Jan. 16, 2013).

[149]. See id.

[150]. 16 U.S.C. § 4724 (2012).

[151]. Larry LeClair et al., Washington State Aquatic Invasive Species Prevention and Enforcement Programs: 2012 Report to the Legislature 3 (2012), available at http://wdfw.wa.gov/publications/01392/.

[152]. Wash. Rev. Code § 77.12.879(2) (2012).

[153]. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 33-10.5-108 (2012).

[154]. Idaho Admin. Code r. 26.01.34.000 to .077 (2012).

[155]. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 23-4-204(b)(i) (2012) (“An annual fee shall be collected . . . for every watercraft before the watercraft enters the waters of the state. Payment of the fees shall be evidenced by a sticker placed on the bow of the watercraft . . . .”).

[156]. A.B. No. 2443, 2012 Leg., Reg. Sess. (Cal. 2012) (codified as enacted at Cal. Harb. & Nav. § 675 (West 2012), effective Jan. 1, 2013).

[157]. Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan, supra note 22, at 8.

[158]. U.S. Forest Serv., Order No. 10-08-2009-02, Order – National Forest Occupancy and Use Restrictions – Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland (2009).

[159]. Nat’l Park Serv., Superintendent’s Compendium: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Rainbow Bridge National Monument 3 (2012).

[160]. Help Stop Aquatic Invasive Species, Glacier Nat’l Park, Nat’l Park Serv., http://www.nps.gov/glac/planyourvisit/ais.htm(last updated Nov. 13, 2012).

[161]. An Action Plan to Implement Legal and Regulatory Efforts to Minimize Expansion of Invasive Mussels Through Watercraft Movements in the Western United States 2-4 (2012) (drafted by workshop participants), available at http://seagrant.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/invasive-species/mussel-workshop-2012/ag_ais_ workshop_actionplan2012_0.pdf.

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